EVM Integration with Production Client

Contained in this file is glue code needed in order to enable the ability to use KEVM as a VM for an actual Ethereum node.

module EVM-NODE
    imports EVM
    imports K-REFLECTION
    imports COLLECTIONS

State loading operations.

In order to enable scalable execution of transactions on an entire blockchain, it is necessary to avoid serializing/deserializing the entire state of all accounts when constructing the initial configuration for KEVM. To do this, we assume that accounts not present in the <accounts> cell might not exist and need to be loaded on each access. We also defer loading of storage entries and the actual code byte string until it is needed. Because the same account may be loaded more than once, implementations of this interface are expected to cache the actual query to the Ethereum client.

  • #unloaded represents the code of an account that has not had its code loaded yet. Unloaded code may not be empty.
  • Empty code is detected without lazy evaluation by means of checking the code hash, and therefore will always be represented in the <code> cell as .WordStack.
    syntax AccountCode ::= "#unloaded"
  • #getBalance returns the balance of an account that exists based on its integer address.
  • #getNonce returns the nonce of an account that exists based on its integer address.
  • #isCodeEmpty returns true if the code hash of the account is equal to the hash of the empty string, and false otherwise.
  • #accountExists returns true if the account is present in the state trie for the current block, and false otherwise.
    syntax Int  ::= #getBalance ( Int ) [function, hook(BLOCKCHAIN.getBalance)]
                  | #getNonce   ( Int ) [function, hook(BLOCKCHAIN.getNonce)]
 // -------------------------------------------------------------------------

    syntax Bool ::= #isCodeEmpty   ( Int ) [function, hook(BLOCKCHAIN.isCodeEmpty)]
                  | #accountExists ( Int ) [function, hook(BLOCKCHAIN.accountExists)]
 // ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  • #loadAccount loads an account’s balance and nonce if it exists, and leaves the code and storage unloaded, except if the code is empty, in which case the code is fully loaded. If the account does not exist, it does nothing.
    rule <k> #loadAccount ACCT => . ... </k>
         <activeAccounts> ACCTS (.Set => SetItem(ACCT)) </activeAccounts>
         <accounts>
           ( .Bag
          => <account>
               <acctID> ACCT </acctID>
               <balance> #getBalance(ACCT) </balance>
               <code> #if #isCodeEmpty(ACCT) #then .WordStack #else #unloaded #fi </code>
               <storage> .Map </storage>
               <origStorage> .Map </origStorage>
               <nonce> #getNonce(ACCT) </nonce>
             </account>
           )
           ...
         </accounts>
      requires notBool ACCT in ACCTS andBool #accountExists(ACCT)

    rule <k> #loadAccount ACCT => . ... </k>
         <activeAccounts> ACCTS </activeAccounts>
      requires ACCT in ACCTS orBool notBool #accountExists(ACCT)
  • #getStorageData loads the value for a single storage key of a specified account by its address and storage offset. If the storage key has already been loaded or the account does not exist, it does nothing.
    syntax Int ::= #getStorageData ( Int , Int ) [function, hook(BLOCKCHAIN.getStorageData)]
 // ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    rule <k> #lookupStorage ACCT INDEX => . ... </k>
         <account>
           <acctID>  ACCT                                                         </acctID>
           <storage> STORAGE => STORAGE [ INDEX <- #getStorageData(ACCT, INDEX) ] </storage>
           <origStorage> ORIGSTORAGE => ORIGSTORAGE [ INDEX <- #getStorageData(ACCT, INDEX) ] </origStorage>
           ...
         </account>
      requires notBool INDEX in_keys(STORAGE)

    rule <k> #lookupStorage ACCT INDEX => . ... </k>
         <account>
           <acctID> ACCT </acctID>
           <storage> ... INDEX |-> _ ... </storage>
           ...
         </account>

    rule <k> #lookupStorage ACCT _ => . ... </k>
      requires notBool #accountExists(ACCT)
  • #getCode loads the code for a specified account by its address. If the code has already been loaded, it does nothing. If the account does not exist, it also does nothing.
    syntax String ::= #getCode ( Int ) [function, hook(BLOCKCHAIN.getCode)]
 // -----------------------------------------------------------------------
    rule <k> #lookupCode ACCT => . ... </k>
         <account>
           <acctID> ACCT </acctID>
           <code> #unloaded => #parseByteStackRaw(#getCode(ACCT)) </code>
           ...
         </account>

    rule <k> #lookupCode ACCT => . ... </k>
         <account>
           <acctID> ACCT </acctID>
           <code> _:WordStack </code>
           ...
         </account>

    rule <k> #lookupCode ACCT => . ... </k>
      requires notBool #accountExists(ACCT)
  • #getBlockhash(N) returns the blockhash of the Nth most recent block, up to a maximum of 256 blocks. It is used in the implementation of the BLOCKHASH instruction as seen below.
    syntax Int ::= #getBlockhash ( Int ) [function, hook(BLOCKCHAIN.getBlockhash)]
 // ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    rule <k> BLOCKHASH N => #getBlockhash(N) ~> #push ... </k> <mode> NORMAL </mode> requires N >=Int 0 andBool N  <Int 256
    rule <k> BLOCKHASH N => 0                ~> #push ... </k> <mode> NORMAL </mode> requires N  <Int 0  orBool N >=Int 256

Transaction Execution

  • runVM takes all the input state of a transaction and the current block header and executes the transaction according to the specified state, relying on the above loading operations for access to accounts and block hashes. The signature of this function must match the signature expected by VM.ml in the blockchain-k-plugin.
    syntax EthereumSimulation ::= runVM ( iscreate: Bool , to: Int          , from: Int       , code: String  , args: String  , value: Int     , gasprice: Int
                                        , gas: Int       , beneficiary: Int , difficulty: Int , number: Int   , gaslimit: Int , timestamp: Int , unused: String )
 // -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    rule <k> (.K => #loadAccount ACCTFROM) ~> runVM(... from: ACCTFROM) ... </k>
         <activeAccounts> .Set </activeAccounts>

    rule <k> runVM(true, _, ACCTFROM, _, ARGS, VALUE, GPRICE, GAVAIL, CB, DIFF, NUMB, GLIMIT, TS, _)
          => #loadAccount #newAddr(ACCTFROM, NONCE -Int 1)
          ~> #create ACCTFROM #newAddr(ACCTFROM, NONCE -Int 1) GAVAIL VALUE #parseByteStackRaw(ARGS)
          ~> #codeDeposit #newAddr(ACCTFROM, NONCE -Int 1)
          ~> #endCreate
         ...
         </k>
         <schedule> SCHED </schedule>
         <gasPrice> _ => GPRICE </gasPrice>
         <origin> _ => ACCTFROM </origin>
         <callDepth> _ => -1 </callDepth>
         <coinbase> _ => CB </coinbase>
         <difficulty> _ => DIFF </difficulty>
         <number> _ => NUMB </number>
         <gasLimit> _ => GLIMIT </gasLimit>
         <timestamp> _ => TS </timestamp>
         <account>
           <acctID> ACCTFROM </acctID>
           <nonce> NONCE </nonce>
           ...
         </account>
         <touchedAccounts> _ => SetItem(CB) </touchedAccounts>
         <activeAccounts> ACCTS </activeAccounts>
      requires ACCTFROM in ACCTS

    rule <k> runVM(false, ACCTTO, ACCTFROM, _, ARGS, VALUE, GPRICE, GAVAIL, CB, DIFF, NUMB, GLIMIT, TS, _)
          => #loadAccount ACCTTO
          ~> #lookupCode ACCTTO
          ~> #call ACCTFROM ACCTTO ACCTTO GAVAIL VALUE VALUE #parseByteStackRaw(ARGS) false
          ~> #endVM
         ...
         </k>
         <schedule> SCHED </schedule>
         <gasPrice> _ => GPRICE </gasPrice>
         <origin> _ => ACCTFROM </origin>
         <callDepth> _ => -1 </callDepth>
         <coinbase> _ => CB </coinbase>
         <difficulty> _ => DIFF </difficulty>
         <number> _ => NUMB </number>
         <gasLimit> _ => GLIMIT </gasLimit>
         <timestamp> _ => TS </timestamp>
         <touchedAccounts> _ => SetItem(CB) </touchedAccounts>
         <activeAccounts> ACCTS </activeAccounts>
      requires ACCTFROM in ACCTS
  • #endCreate and #endVM clean up after the transaction finishes and store the return status code of the top level call frame on the top of the <k> cell.
    syntax KItem ::= "#endVM" | "#endCreate"
 // ----------------------------------------
    rule <statusCode> _:ExceptionalStatusCode </statusCode>
         <k> #halt ~> #endVM => #popCallStack ~> #popWorldState ~> 0 </k>
         <output> _ => .WordStack </output>

    rule <statusCode> EVMC_REVERT </statusCode>
         <k> #halt ~> #endVM => #popCallStack ~> #popWorldState ~> #refund GAVAIL ~> 0 </k>
         <gas> GAVAIL </gas>

    rule <statusCode> EVMC_SUCCESS </statusCode>
         <k> #halt ~> #endVM => #popCallStack ~> #dropWorldState ~> #refund GAVAIL ~> 1 </k>
         <gas> GAVAIL </gas>

    rule <k> #endCreate => W ... </k> <wordStack> W : WS </wordStack>

Primitive operations expected to exist by the blockchain-k-plugin

  • vmResult represents the extracted information about the world state after the transaction finishes. Its signature must match the signature expected by VM.ml in the blockchain-k-plugin.
  • extractConfig takes a final configuration after rewriting and extracts a vmResult from it in order to abstract away configuration structure from the postprocessing done by the blockchain-k-plugin.
    syntax KItem ::= vmResult ( return: String , gas: Int , refund: Int , status: Int , selfdestruct: List , logs: List , AccountsCell , touched: List )
    syntax KItem ::= extractConfig ( GeneratedTopCell ) [function]
 // --------------------------------------------------------------
    rule extractConfig ( <generatedTop>
                           <output> OUT </output>
                           <gas> GAVAIL </gas>
                           <refund> REFUND </refund>
                           <k> STATUS:Int </k>
                           <selfDestruct> SD </selfDestruct>
                           <log> LOGS </log>
                           <accounts> ACCTS </accounts>
                           <touchedAccounts> TOUCHED </touchedAccounts>
                           ...
                         </generatedTop>
                       )
      => vmResult(#unparseByteStack(OUT), GAVAIL, REFUND, STATUS, Set2List(SD), LOGS, <accounts> ACCTS </accounts>, Set2List(TOUCHED))
  • contractBytes takes the contents of the <code> cell and returns its binary representation as a String.
    syntax String ::= contractBytes(WordStack) [function]
 // -----------------------------------------------------
    rule contractBytes(WS) => #unparseByteStack(WS)

The following are expected to exist in the client, but are already defined in [data.md].

  • accountEmpty takes the contents of the <code> cell, the contents of the <nonce> cell, and the contents of the <balance> cell and returns true if the account is empty according to the semantics of EIP161 (i.e., empty code zero balance zero nonce).
  • unparseByteStack takes a WordStack and returns the corresponding byte String.
  • initGeneratedTopCell is the top cell initializer used to construct an initial configuration. The configuration is expected to have $MODE, $PGM, and $SCHEDULE parameters.
  • logEntry is an entry in the log data created by a transaction. It is expected to consist of an Int address, a List of Int topics, and a WordStack of data.
  • NORMAL is the value of $MODE used by actual transaction execution.
endmodule